History of Europe 1815-1914December 2006The Age of IdeologyNationalism is a relatively saucy phenomenon , considering the grand sweep of history . Although its roots can be found among the ancient Hebrews and Greeks , Niccolo Machiavelli s book , The Prince , was the beginning of modern twenty-four hours nationalism , and was important in the preparation of nationalism HYPERLINK hypertext bump off protocol /www .questia .com /PM .qst ?a o d (Kohn , 1955 ,. 9 Machiavelli believed that the state must be preserved and defended at some(prenominal) cost , and longed for Italian unification , which was to come br centuries laterJohn Milton of ordinal century Great Britain is considered to be the architect of modern day quantify nationalism . Milton regarded nationalism as the affirmation of several(prenominal) freedom from auth ority , the self-assertion of personality in pillowcase of its suffer g everyplacenment or church and the freedom to evince and to compete freely according to conscience HYPERLINK http /www .questia .com /PM .qst ?a o d (Kohn , 1955 ,. 16-17According to historian John residence , at the core of liberalism is the quest to answer the question , What is the personality of a good life (Hall 1988 ,.9 ) Immanuel Kant , the German philosopher , was concerned with the categories of the tender-hearted mind . His philosophy is often called critical philosophy . He believed world efforting to be the ultimate authority on moral philosophy , and that a person should be free to reason . As hall puts it Kant s defense of the basic liberal intent of considering individuals to be of moral worth remains high- designered and absolutely central to liberalism (Hall , 1988 ,.19John Stuart mill about is considered to be the most important hit theorist of liberalism (Hall , 1988 ,.24 ) He believed in a person s by rights to fr! eedom , as did Kant , and defended individual liberty . Mill wrote in his work , On Liberty , the only purpose for which power can be right honorabley exercised over any fellow member of a civilized comm concurrence , against his will , is to prevent wound to others (Hall , 1988 ,.
25 ) Mill was considered to be a radical in his epoch for he supported women s equality , including the right to vote , raising and birth tick off Although Mill never became a collectivised , he studied pre-Marxist socialist worksKarl Marx s brand of socialism overlap out industrialized society into two classes : proletariat and middle class . The prole tariats existence the working class , and the bourgeoisie being the prosperous , ruling class . He criticized capitalism and considered it to be autocratic . He viewed freedom as the extent of piece s supremacy over nature and the degree of rational , conscious control over social relations (Walicki , 1995 br.12 ) Marx was the prophet of communism and he aspect that his utopian view of society would restore the unity of humankind reconciling human individual existence with human species gist (Walicki , 1995 ,.12Friedrich Engels was a contemporary of Marx , and co-wrote works with him , including the Communist pronunciamento . some(prenominal) Engels and Marx co-founded communism . He believed that the evils in industrialized society were due to private property , and...If you want to get a complete essay, order it on our website: BestEssayCheap.com
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